Catherine Arsenault, PhD is the Research Lead of Working Group 1: Definition and Description and a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Department of Global Health and Population at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Prior to joining the HQSS Commission, she received a PhD in Epidemiology from McGill University and completed an MSc in Health Systems Administration at the University of Montreal. Catherine has worked with Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance on the determinants and equitable distribution of vaccination coverage. She has also published on the measurement of health inequalities, the incidence of catastrophic spending for emergency obstetric care and on the determinants of obstetric care provider’s knowledge in Mali. Her research interests include: health equity, health system quality and financial protection in low- and middle-income countries.